Until the 19th century, most mathematicians considered the number 1 a prime, with the definition being just that a prime is divisible only by 1 and itself but not requiring a specific number of distinct divisors. There is still a large body of mathematical work that is valid despite labelling 1 a prime, such as the work of Stern and Zeisel. Derrick Norman Lehmer's list of primes up to 10,006,721, reprinted as late as 1956, started with 1 as its first prime. Henri Lebesgue is said to be the last professional mathematician to call 1 prime. The change in label occurred so that the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, as stated, is valid, i.e., “each number has a unique factorization into primes.”So there you have it. They decided in the last 43 years that 1 could no longer be prime so that one of their theorems could be correct. Why does that remind me of someone fudging statistics?
I know, I know... soapbox, right? First the divide-by-zero post, then this... How about this, as soon as we can explain all our math in simple fractals without saying things like "except 0 or 1" or "with n>1", then I'll change my position on it.
Thus Theorem 1 of Hardy & Wright (1979) takes the form, “Every positive integer, except 1, is a product of primes”bah humbug ;)